November 19th – 25th
19th: 1274 Hakata Bay in Japan. The Mongols are defeated by Japanese defenders. They are struck by a typhoon as they retreat and lose most of the ships.
1863 Abraham Lincoln, deliveries the Gettysburg address, at the dedication to the new national cemetery.
1969 The third and fourth, humans to walk on the moon arrive. Charles Conrad and Alan Bean get the honor of walking on the moon. This was the Apollo 12 mission, the sixth manned Apollo mission.
20th: 1943 USMC 2nd Division land on the Tarawa Atoll Island of the Betio in the central Gilbert Islands. By the end of the battle on November 23rd, the 18,000 Marines suffer 1009 Killed and 2101 wounded in action. The Japanese force 2,236 soldiers, 1,000 laborers and 1,200 Korean laborers, 4,690 would die. It is estimated that 40% of these casualties were caused in the initial bombardment. Only 17 Japanese and 129 Korean laborers, lived to be captured.
1789 New Jersey becomes the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
1815 Paris, France. The Napoleonic wars, come to an end. As the Second Treaty of Paris is signed. This follows, Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo.
21st: 1806 Napoleon, institutes the Continental System, by the decree of Berlin. This is his attempt to make trade with Great Britain illegal. This was in response to Britain’s blockade of all French ports between Brest to the Elbe.
1818 A petition for a Jewish state in Palestine, is put forth by Tsar Alexander I, of Russia.
1916 HMHS Britannic, sinks after she hits a mine at 08:12 am. It takes her 55 minutes to go under. On board are 1,066 people, of which 1036 people would survive. She has the dubious honor of being the largest ship sunk in WWI.
22nd: 1497 After several days of adverse currents and winds, the Portuguese Navigator Vasco de Gama; makes it around the Cape of Good Hope, into the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese ships carries pillars, to claim the lands visited along the way.
1864 Battle of Griswoldville. This was the first battle of Shermans March to the sea. Brig. General Charles Walcutt, moved towards moved towards Macon, Georgia. He was briefly engaged by Confederate cavalry, who withdrew. Walcutt, also withdrew and fortified his position. He was then engaged by Georgia Militia under Brig. Gen Pleasant Phillips, who were on their wat to Augusta. Walcutt’s troops endured several charges and held the field. Of the 4500 militia men, 1100 were lost. The Union strength of 1500 men was reduced by 94.
23rd: 0800 The Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne visits Rome, to Pope Leo III’s alleged crimes.
1248 Seville finally surrenders, after a 16-month siege. Forces of the Almohad Caliphate, under Axataf finally surrendered to Ferdinand II of Castile. Ending Moorish domination in the area.
1889 Pacific Phonograph’s Jukebox is heard for the first time at the Palais Royale Saloon, in San Francisco.
24th: 1105 Rabbi Nathan ben Yehiel of Rome completes Talmudic dictionary.
1221 Battle of the Indus: Genghis Khan’s Mongol force defeats Shah Jalal ad-Din’s army, last battle in Mongolian conquest of Khwarezmian Empire
1943 Seaman Doris Miller is killed aboard the escort carrier Liscome Bay. When it is torpedoed off Makin Island. Miller was the first African American awarded the Navy Cross, for his actions on December 7th, 1941, during the attack on Pearl Harbor. 644, crewman would lose their lives on during the sinking of the Liscome Bay.
25th: 1177 even with being severely infected with leprosy, 16-year-old Baldwin IV, defeats forces led by Saladin, at the battle of Montgisard. With only a force of 3 to 4,500 men, he was victorious over a much larger, Ayyubid Dynasty troops (estimated at over 20,00). Most of the of the dynasty’s troops, were cut down in a twelve-mile pursuit.
1897 By Royal decree, Puerto Rico is granted autonomy from Spain.
1992 due to chronical illness of his father, Prince Hirohito becomes regent of Japan. He would later lead his country into war, during WW2.